Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their association with semen quality. This study evaluated the relationship between Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) protein seminal plasma and semen quality parameters are different. semen samples from 10 adult bulls Bali evaluated for semen parameters of conventional (motility general, viability, and normal morphology), sperm function (acrosome reaction, the rate of penetration of sperm, the index of penetration of sperm), the kinetics of sperm (computer aided analysis parameters of semen such as the speed of sperm), and morphology of sperm (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with a higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity (P

High Sensitivity Protein Gel Electrophoresis Label Compatible with Mass-Spectrometry

Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is a widely used technique for macromolecular and protein analysis. While some of the existing methods for visualizing the separate protein bands on the gel, one of the most popular methods of protein staining with Coomassie dye is. Newer approach is to use the Bio-Rad stain-free technology to visualize protein bands with UV light and a sensitivity equal to or greater than the Coomassie dye. Here, we developed a method for Strengthening the sensitivity of gel stain-free using carboxyfluorescein Succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining. We compare our new method using fetal bovine serum samples with Coomassie stain, smudge-free standard gel and silver staining. Our results show that while silver staining remains the gold standard method in terms of sensitivity; CFSE staining of samples before use with smudge-free gel results in a 10-100 fold increase in sensitivity over Coomassie staining and stain-free method standard. Our method offers a sensitivity similar to silver staining that is compatible with downstream mass spectrometry, and because it is more profitable for further retrieval and analysis of macromolecules in the band.
Western blotting was trying to analyze the proteins were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis native who previously developed in his / Mes buffer system. This report shows a simple protocol for native agarose gel blotting PVDF membrane by immersing a gel containing sodium dodekilsulfat Transfer buffer and 3 examples of the analysis. The first example shows the expression of recombinant antibodies in HEK293 cells by direct staining of the agarose gel native to both protein and nucleic acid and protein spotting and staining of host cell proteins. This analysis demonstrated the usefulness of native agarose gel electrophoresis, confirming that the recombinant antibodies migrate towards the cathode while the nucleic acid and the majority of host cell proteins migrate toward the anode. The second example shows the state of MAP kinase phosphorylation in cell lines of human lymphocytes. Namely, the original agarose gel to separate the kinase, the phosphorylation can be analyzed by Western blotting. The third example shows the correlation Escherichia coli β-galactosidase expression between oligomerization and enzyme activity using antibodies and staining the substrate.

Of mono-PEGylation against anti-specific protein interactions: dihydrolipoic acid ratio compared to glutathione-capped fluorescent gold nanoclusters using gel electrophoresis

Ultrafine fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) has emerged as nanoprobes biocompatible for in vivo biomedical imaging, and accuracy AuNCs surface chemistry is the key to achieving their clinical application. Comparison of two promising candidates for future nanoscale, ie dihydrolipoic acid-vs-capped AuNCs glutathione (AuNC @ DHLA vs AuNC @ GSH), performed for the first time to clarify them linked polyethylene glycol-bioconjugate chemistry (PEGylation) and protein interactions. Gel electrophoresis is done to separate the number AuNCs PEGylation, and the molecular weight PEG spacer dominate separation resolution in the gel. We have engineered and isolating the mono-pegylated AuNCs both carbodiimide bioconjugate chemistry indirectly or directly Au-S binding. one-pot synthesis showed great efficiency to isolate mono-pegylated AuNC @ GSH of aggregation master adjustable Au (I) complexes generated in situ -thiolate on Au (0) cores.Post-PEGylation of AuNC @ GSH is also worth using monodendate thiol- terminated PEG, but the ligand bidendate of AuNC @ DHLA exhibited low pegylated efficiency with Au-S binding.

Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their association with semen quality.  This study evaluated the relationship between Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) protein seminal plasma and semen quality parameters are different. semen samples from 10 adult bulls Bali evaluated for semen parameters of conventional (motility general, viability, and normal morphology), sperm function (acrosome reaction, the rate of penetration of sperm, the index of penetration of sperm), the kinetics of sperm (computer aided analysis parameters of semen such as the speed of sperm), and morphology of sperm (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with a higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity (P <0.05) was consistently higher in the acrosome reaction and sperm penetration test. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls secondary display, and the remaining three cows lowest showing for all sperm parameters and SPA. seminal plasma proteome maps of high-quality and low-quality Bali cattle were also established. seminal plasma of both high quality and low quality bulls Bali was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric points ranging from 3 to 10 and a molecular weight of 10-250 kDa. Approximately 116 points detected by Blue Silver stains and spots, 29 have been selected and identified by MALDI-TOF / TOF-MS / MS. The majority of the proteins visualized in a two-dimensional map of the seminal plasma were identified. An important group of spots identified are represented binder sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Another protein found in high abundance including seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to the β2 -microglobulin. Thus, the reference maps Bali bull seminal plasma proteins have been produced for the first time and can be used to relate changes in the pattern of protein physiopathologic events that can affect the reproductive performance of Bali bull.
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their association with semen quality.
This study evaluated the relationship between Bali banteng (Bos javanicus) protein seminal plasma and semen quality parameters are different. semen samples from 10 adult bulls Bali evaluated for semen parameters of conventional (motility general, viability, and normal morphology), sperm function (acrosome reaction, the rate of penetration of sperm, the index of penetration of sperm), the kinetics of sperm (computer aided analysis parameters of semen such as the speed of sperm), and morphology of sperm (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with a higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity (P <0.05) was consistently higher in the acrosome reaction and sperm penetration test. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls secondary display, and the remaining three cows lowest showing for all sperm parameters and SPA. seminal plasma proteome maps of high-quality and low-quality Bali cattle were also established. seminal plasma of both high quality and low quality bulls Bali was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric points ranging from 3 to 10 and a molecular weight of 10-250 kDa. Approximately 116 points detected by Blue Silver stains and spots, 29 have been selected and identified by MALDI-TOF / TOF-MS / MS. The majority of the proteins visualized in a two-dimensional map of the seminal plasma were identified. An important group of spots identified are represented binder sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Another protein found in high abundance including seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to the β2 -microglobulin. Thus, the reference maps Bali bull seminal plasma proteins have been produced for the first time and can be used to relate changes in the pattern of protein physiopathologic events that can affect the reproductive performance of Bali bull.

efficient four-step approach to develop a method of capillary gel electrophoresis for protein analysis virus vaccine

Vaccines against infectious diseases is needed. Therefore, the development of modern analytical methods must be as efficient as possible to accelerate the development of vaccines. The purpose of this study was to identify the critical parameter method (CMPS) and to establish a set of measures to efficiently develop and validate the CE-SDS method for protein analysis based buffer gel vaccine commercially available. The CMPS gained from reviewing the literature and tested the effects of dilution buffer gel. Four-step approach, including two multivariate DoE (design of experiments) step, it is proposed, based CMPS and verified by CE-SDS method development to: (i) determination of the mini-group 1 influenza hemagglutinin glycoprotein; and (ii) the determination of particle polio virus proteins of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). The CMPS for sample preparation is the incubation temperature (s) and time (s), pH and concentration of reagent (s) (s) and wavelength detection. Effect of dilution buffer gel revealed CMPS for CE-SDS separation became effective length, buffer gel concentration, and capillary temperature. Four step approach based CMPS efficient for the development of two methods CE. Four-step approach to efficiently develop a method of capillary gel electrophoresis for protein analysis virus vaccine is successfully established. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.One-pot synthesis showed great efficiency to isolate mono-pegylated AuNC @ GSH of aggregation master adjustable Au (I) complexes generated in situ -thiolate on Au (0) cores. Post-PEGylation of AuNC @ GSH is also worth using monodendate thiol-terminated PEG, but the ligand bidendate of AuNC @ DHLA exhibited low pegylated efficiency with Au-S binding.

CometAssay Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay

4250-050-K 50 tests
EUR 513.6

Hi-Bind? T-Gel-Agarose

M1313-1
EUR 157.2

Hi-Bind? T-Gel-Agarose

M1313-10
EUR 261.6

Hi-Bind? T-Gel-Agarose

M1313-100
EUR 1801.2

CometAssay Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay-Silver

4251-050-K 1 kit
EUR 684.96

Agarose gel DNA extraction and purification kit

K1441-100
EUR 510

Agarose Gel DNA Extraction and Purification

EP10010 100 Tests
EUR 356.4

ES 6 Tooth Gel Comb For ES Electrophoresis

LE1011-A4 Ea
EUR 148.8

ES 8/10 Double Gel Comb For ES Electrophoresis

LE1011-A3 Ea
EUR 148.8

Cys-link agarose gel coupling buffer kit (5-10 peptides)

110400-CB 1 kit
EUR 270

CometAssay Electrophoresis Starter Kit

4250-050-ESK 1 Kit
EUR 3749.28

Gel-FAST? Gel Staining/Destaining Kit

K901-40
EUR 210

electrophoresis power supply

EV245 ea
EUR 574.8

CometAssay Electrophoresis System

4250-050-ES 1 Kit
EUR 3540.96

miniONE Electrophoresis System

ELE3400 EACH
EUR 624.72

Preactivated Cys-Link-Affinity Gel Agarose (for Cys-containing peptides/proteins)

110100-CG 5 ml
EUR 343.2

Preactivated N-Link-Affinity Gel Agarose (for NH2-containing peptides/proteins)

110200-NG 5 ml
EUR 343.2

Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH)-Agarose affinity gel for removing KLH antibodies

KLH11-G 1 ml
EUR 270

E. Coli Proteins-Agarose affinity gel for removing E. coli antibodies

EC11-G 1 ml
EUR 343.2

Agarose

abx082006-100g 100 g
EUR 292.8

Agarose

abx082007-100g 100 g
EUR 309.6

Agarose

abx082008-100g 100 g
EUR 276

Agarose

20-abx098147
  • EUR 260.40
  • EUR 126.00
  • 100 g
  • 1 g

Agarose

20-abx186369
  • EUR 610.80
  • EUR 360.00
  • 100 g
  • 25 g

Agarose

G060-1 100 g
EUR 211.2

Agarose

G060-2 500 g
EUR 442.8

Agarose

Z5050007 500 g
EUR 738
Description: None pays much attention to the agarose until your gel comes out all with waves and uneven thickness. Or even worse, the gel comes out all good only to start melting while you are running the electrophoresis wasting you precious samples. Save yourself some trouble and get our agarose which will provide you with excellent gel quality every time.

Agarose

Z5050013 100 g
EUR 226.8
Description: None pays much attention to the agarose until your gel comes out all with waves and uneven thickness. Or even worse, the gel comes out all good only to start melting while you are running the electrophoresis wasting you precious samples. Save yourself some trouble and get our agarose which will provide you with excellent gel quality every time.

Maximo-Gel juice fluorescent Protein-Gel Gel stain

310012 10 ml
EUR 222

Maximo-Gel juice fluorescent Protein-Gel Gel stain

310012-L 10x10ml
EUR 1904.4

myGel Mini Electrophoresis System

BM0286 System
EUR 741.6

ES Horizontal Electrophoresis Set

LE1011 Set
EUR 578.4

Acrylamide, suitable for electrophoresis

GK5651-100G 100 g
EUR 64.8

Starch (Smithies), for electrophoresis

GE6857-1KG 1 kg
EUR 370.8

Starch (Smithies), for electrophoresis

GE6857-500G 500 g
EUR 217.2

6X6 well Electrophoresis Apparatus

EDK626 1 UNIT
EUR 750.6

Chiller for Electrophoresis systems

CSLCHILLER EACH
EUR 6453.54

Gel-Bright LED Gel Illuminator

E90003 1EA
EUR 927.6
Description: Minimum order quantity: 1 unit of 1EA

Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH)-Agarose af is finity gel for removing KLH antibodies

KLH11-G-5 5 ml
EUR 634.8

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 12 Well, EtBr Stained, 20 gels per Box

TBE12-2PER-EB 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 280.8

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 17 Well, EtBr Stained, 20 gels per Box

TBE17-2PER-EB 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 280.8

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 48 Well, EtBr Stained, 10 gels per Box

TBE48-2PER-EB 1BOX, 10UNIT
EUR 331.44

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 12 Well, EtBr Stained, 20 gels per Box

TAE12-2PER-EB 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 280.8

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 17 Well, EtBr Stained, 20 gels per Box

TAE17-2PER-EB 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 280.8

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 48 Well, EtBr Stained, 10 gels per Box

TAE48-2PER-EB 1BOX, 10UNIT
EUR 331.44

ComboMini? Electrophoresis System ? COMPLETE with ONE electrophoresis system + ONE gel maker set (4 combs, 1 large tray, 1 medium tray, 1 small tray, 1 gel casting stand) NEW (specify 220V or 110V) $380

ACT-CBMN-7
EUR 892.8

Agarose A

D0012 50g
EUR 96.54

Agarose L.M.P

20-abx082386
  • EUR 326.40
  • EUR 260.40
  • 10 g
  • 5 g

Agarose M

AB0013 50g
EUR 91.32

Agarose LE

A-1270-100 100 g
EUR 139.2

Agarose LE

A-1270-500 500 g
EUR 349.2

Agarose HR

A-1280-100 100 g
EUR 219.6

Agarose HR

A-1280-500 500 g
EUR 822

Agarose GA

A-1290-100 100 g
EUR 123.6

Agarose GA

A-1290-500 500 g
EUR 306

Agarose LM

A-1300-100 100 g
EUR 230.4

Agarose LM

A-1300-25 25 g
EUR 123.6

Agarose, Sepro

A0224-010 100g
EUR 262.8

Agarose, Sepro

A0224-020 200g
EUR 343.2

Agarose, Sepro

A0224-050 500g
EUR 522

Agarose Tablets

BA50201 100pcs
EUR 130.8
Description: Ultrapure agarose for separation and further analysis of PCR products.

Agarose StandardRoomTemperature

FYA002-100G 100 g Ask for price

Agarose StandardRoomTemperature

FYA002-500G 500 g Ask for price

Quick Gel Extraction Kit

20-abx098085
  • EUR 343.20
  • EUR 243.60
  • 200 rxns
  • 50 rxns

Gel DNA Recovery Kit

GP05 5 preps Ask for price

Gel DNA Recovery Kit

GP100 100 preps
EUR 156

Gel DNA Recovery Kit

GP200 200 preps
EUR 226.8

Gel DNA Recovery Kit

GP50 50 preps
EUR 112.8

AmbiClean Kit (PCR & Gel)

GV05 5 preps Ask for price

AmbiClean Kit (PCR & Gel)

GV100 100 preps
EUR 153.6

AmbiClean Kit (PCR & Gel)

GV200 200 preps
EUR 226.8

AmbiClean Kit (PCR & Gel)

GV50 50 preps
EUR 109.2

Frit Kit

FRIT-KIT 1each
EUR 148.8
Description: Kit to create frits in capillaries. Includes formamide, Kasil-1, Kasil-1624 and a cleaving tool.

Column Packing Kit

PACK-KIT 1pack
EUR 1242
Description: Column packing kit for pressure cells. Includes: HPREG regulator, TBNG10 tubing, CAP-75 capillary, and STRB5X2 stir bar.

TC Gel

CP048-005 500 g
EUR 278.4

TC Gel

CP048-010 1 Kg
EUR 416.4

Gel Tray

2394250 4unit
EUR 324
Description: I ncl udi ng pl at es

Gel Tray

2398194 2unit
EUR 424.8

Gel Cutter

KS071012-11 12
EUR 106.8
Description: Premade ready to use kits will always come in handy. Get your experiment done right form the first try by using a validated kit with perfectly balanced reagents proportions and compatibility and by following a clear protocol.

Gel Filter

KS071012-13 12
EUR 138
Description: Premade ready to use kits will always come in handy. Get your experiment done right form the first try by using a validated kit with perfectly balanced reagents proportions and compatibility and by following a clear protocol.

Rabbit Anti-E. Coli Proteins IgG-Agarose affinity gel for removing E. coli proteins

EC12-AS 1 ml
EUR 634.8

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 12 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 20 gels per Box

TBE12-2PER-SF 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 343.44

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 17 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 20 gels per Box

TBE17-2PER-SF 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 343.44

Precast Agarose Gel TBE, 2%, 48 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 10 gels per Box

TBE48-2PER-SF 1BOX, 10UNIT
EUR 440.02

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 12 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 20 gels per Box

TAE12-2PER-SF 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 343.44

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 17 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 20 gels per Box

TAE17-2PER-SF 1BOX, 20UNIT
EUR 343.44

Precast Agarose Gel TAE, 2%, 48 Well, Eco-Green Stained, 10 gels per Box

TAE48-2PER-SF 1BOX, 10UNIT
EUR 440.02

PCR Mycoplasma Detection Kit

M034-Kit Kit
EUR 319.2

electrophoresis ps 400v, 500ma, 50w

EV1450 ea
EUR 574.8

electrophoresis ps 400v, 500ma, 50w

EV1450-UK ea
EUR 574.8

electrophoresis ps 400v, 500ma, 50w

EV1450-US ea
EUR 574.8

electrophoresis ps 1500v, 300ma, 150w

EV2230 ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis ps 1500v, 300ma, 150w

EV2230-UK ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis ps 1500v, 300ma, 150w

EV2230-US ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis ps 300v, 1000ma, 150w

EV2310 ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 300v, 1000ma, 150w

EV2310-UK ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 300v, 1000ma, 150w

EV2310-US ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 150ma, 150w

EV2320 ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 150ma, 150w

EV2320-UK ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 150ma, 150w

EV2320-US ea
EUR 898.8

electrophoresis power supply uk plug

EV245-UK ea
EUR 574.8

electrophoresis power supply 120 vac

EV245-US ea
EUR 574.8

electrophoresis ps 600v, 500ma, 150w

EV2650 ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 600v, 500ma, 150w

EV2650-UK ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 600v, 500ma, 150w

EV2650-US ea
EUR 686.4

electrophoresis ps 300v, 2000ma, 300w

EV3020 ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 300v, 2000ma, 300w

EV3020-UK ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 300v, 2000ma, 300w

EV3020-US ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 1200v, 500ma, 300w

EV3150 ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 1200v, 500ma, 300w

EV3150-UK ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 1200v, 500ma, 300w

EV3150-US ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 300ma, 300w

EV3330 ea
EUR 1456.8

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 300ma, 300w

EV3330-UK ea
EUR 1456.8

electrophoresis ps 3000v, 300ma, 300w

EV3330-US ea
EUR 1456.8

electrophoresis ps 600v, 1000ma, 300w

EV3610 ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 600v, 1000ma, 300w

EV3610-UK ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 600v, 1000ma, 300w

EV3610-US ea
EUR 960

electrophoresis ps 6000v, 150ma, 300w

EV3620 ea
EUR 1456.8

electrophoresis ps 6000v, 150ma, 300w

EV3620-UK ea
EUR 1456.8

electrophoresis ps 6000v, 150ma, 300w

EV3620-US ea
EUR 1456.8

5 x SDS Electrophoresis Buffer

GR103039 1 L
EUR 128.4

Immunoprecipitation Kit: Protein A-Agarose

BS688 20Rxn, 20prep
EUR 242.7

AE-6111 Agarose EP Kit

2322178 1unit
EUR 1035.6
Description: 1 el ect r ophor esi s chamber i ncl udi ng. safet y l i dwi t h power l eads, a 12 x 16 cm gel t r ay wi t h 2 dams, 1 comb hol der and 1 comb for 1 mm, 26 &

GEL Purification Mini Kit (50prep)

FAGPK-001 50 preps
EUR 144

GEL Purification Mini Kit (200prep)

FAGPK-001-1 200 preps
EUR 202.8

GEL Purification Mini Kit (300prep)

FAGPK-001-2 300 preps
EUR 226.8

MicroElute GEL Purification Kit (50prep)

FAMGK-001 50 preps
EUR 151.2

MicroElute GEL Purification Kit (200prep)

FAMGK-001-1 200 preps
EUR 224.4

SDS-PAGE Gel Preparation Kit

abx090646-1Kit 1 Kit
EUR 243.6

Gel Extraction Kit (100 preps)

9K-006-0001 100preps
EUR 283.42

Gel Extraction Kit (200 preps)

9K-006-0002 200preps, 200prep
EUR 418.09

ISOLATE II PCR & Gel Kit

BIO-52058 10 preps Ask for price

ISOLATE II PCR & Gel Kit

BIO-52059 50 preps Ask for price

ISOLATE II PCR & Gel Kit

BIO-52060 250 preps Ask for price

SDS-PAGE Gel Preparation Kit

AR0138 1kit (Enough for 30-50 pieces of gel.)
EUR 115.2

Zenoquick Gel DNA Recovery Kit

Z3001-050 50 preps
EUR 238.8

Zenoquick Gel DNA Recovery Kit

Z3001-200 4x50 preps
EUR 757.2

Gel Filtration LMW Calibration Kit

28403841 EACH
EUR 603.06

Gel Filtration HMW Calibration Kit

28403842 EACH
EUR 603.06

FitAmp Gel DNA Isolation Kit

P-1007 100 Samples
EUR 324.48

Cas9 Protein and T7 gRNA SmartNuclease Synthesis Kit

CAS400A-KIT 1 kit (10 rxn)
EUR 1332

Pesticide Kit Containing All 10 Multi-Compound Mixes

SPXPR-KIT 1ML
EUR 1923.18

V5 agarose beads

AE029-100ul 100 ul Ask for price

V5 agarose beads

AE029-200ul 200 ul
EUR 273.6

V5 agarose beads

AE029-20ul 20 ul Ask for price

In addition, mono-pegylated AuNC @ GSH significantly improve the ability of anti-specific protein adsorption, but mono-pegylated AuNC @ DHLA unable to avoid specific binding to serum albumin. In addition, mono-biotin AuNCs involve special nano-assembly with streptavidin were also compared using gel electrophoresis. These results provide key insights into the selection, preparation and design of functional AuNCs as nanoprobes for multipurpose biomedical applications.